Titles of books, plays, films, periodicals, databases, and websites are italicized. Articles, essays, chapters, poems, webpages, songs, and speeches are placed in quotation marks. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. Accessed 23 Mar. Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Margins should be 1 inch on all sides. Any citations that require more than one line should utilize a hanging indent, where the second and all subsequent lines of the citation are indented five spaces. If you're asked to include annotations for your essay citations, those should also be indented. Example citation: King, Stephen and Peter Straub. The Talisman. Viking Press, 8 November Periodicals and electronic sources articles, print and web Periodicals include articles from either web or print sources, though the former is more common in present day. Note: only include pages if you are quoting from a multi-page source. General citation formula for a periodical: Author s. We recommend keeping the font and size the same as the body text and applying title case capitalization. In general, boldface indicates greater prominence, while italics is appropriate for subordinate headings. Tables and illustrations Tables, illustrations, and other visuals should be placed as close to the relevant part of text as possible. It's used in humanities areas like English studies, comparative literature, foreign language and literature, or cultural studies. Students should read assignment sheets and course syllabi. Writers seeking publication should check submission guidelines. If you still can't tell what style you should be using after reading the directions, contact the instructor or publisher. When citing an essay, you include information in two places: in the body of your paper and in the Works Cited that comes after it. The Works Cited is just a bibliography: you list all the sources you used to write the paper. The citation information you include in the body of the paper itself is called the "in-text citation. You must include a page number that tells the reader where, in the source, they can find this information. The most basic structure for an in-text citation looks like this: Smith In MLA, in-text citations always come at the end of the sentence. The period that would end the sentence comes after the parenthetical citation. Every single source that contains information you used must be included in your Works Cited and cited in-text. The most obvious time to use an in-text citation is when you quote from a source directly or refer to it by title or author. Failing to attribute information that is the product of someone else's work is plagiarism. The repercussions can be severe. For example, it is common knowledge that World War II broke out in Nobody owns that information. But specific strategies, quotes from important figures in the war, and statistics about how many people were involved in the war are all examples of specific, proprietary information. The author of the source you used to research that information had to do the work of finding that information out. You must attribute it to them. But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation.
In general, the title of a work is taken from the title page of the publication. List the essay title as it is written on the source.
Exceptions to this rule are for standardization of capitalization and subtitle punctuation. Do not capitalize articles, prepositions, mla conjunctions when they fall in the middle of a title.
The notes-bibliography system: used in the humanities literature, history and the arts. If you have multiple authors with the same last name, just include the first name. But you should follow this format exactly: Author s. Months are often abbreviated when the citation is excessively lengthy. This lets the reader know where one citation ends and the next one begins. Essay found in print journal: Last, First.
Separate a subtitle mention a colon and a space. Italicize titles if the source is self-contained and independent.
Best online proofreaderUse the interactive example below to see what the Works Cited entry and in-text citation look like for different source types. Viking Press, 15 September Web page: Meade, Rita. Oxford UP, Issue Year : Page range. Exceptions to this rule are for standardization of capitalization and subtitle punctuation.
Titles of books, plays, films, periodicals, databases, and websites are italicized. Articles, essays, chapters, poems, webpages, songs, and speeches are placed in quotation marks. Sometimes titles examples of cinchers in essays contain other titles.
If the format mentioned is usually indicated by italics, use italics for the title within the title. Examples of these titles are films, novels, entire books, journals, and entire websites.
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Examples of these titles are poems, short stories, book chapters, and journal articles. Knopf, Chapter title in a book or anthology: Howard, Rebecca Moore.
Web page: Meade, Rita. Entire Website:.